Understanding the Future of AI

A Summary of Leopold Aschenbrenner's "Situational Awareness" Series

Credit: Collider

Understanding the Future of AI: A Summary of Leopold Aschenbrenner's "Situational Awareness" Series

"Let an ultraintelligent machine be defined as a machine that can far surpass all the intellectual activities of any man however clever. Since the design of machines is one of these intellectual activities, an ultraintelligent machine could design even better machines; there would then unquestionably be an 'intelligence explosion,' and the intelligence of man would be left far behind. Thus the first ultraintelligent machine is the last invention that man need ever make." – I.J. Good (1965)

This quote, which inspired the premise of the movie "The Matrix," underscores the transformative potential of ultraintelligent machines. Leopold Aschenbrenner's "Situational Awareness" series delves into this concept, exploring the rapid advancements in AI and their profound implications.

I. From GPT-4 to AGI: Counting the OOMs

In the first section, Aschenbrenner discusses the transition from GPT-4 to artificial general intelligence (AGI). He highlights that AGI could plausibly emerge by 2027, a prediction grounded in the remarkable progress from GPT-2 to GPT-4 within just a few years. This progress is measured in orders of magnitude (OOMs) in compute power, algorithmic efficiencies, and advancements in AI capabilities.

OOM is a term used to describe the scale or size of something in a quantitative manner, typically by factors of ten. In the context of AI and AGI (Artificial General Intelligence) development, orders of magnitude refer to the exponential improvements in computing power, algorithmic efficiency, and overall AI capabilities.

For example, moving from one order of magnitude to another means increasing the measure by a factor of ten. So, an improvement of two orders of magnitude in computing power would imply a 100-fold increase. This concept is crucial for understanding the rapid advancements in AI, as small increases in orders of magnitude can lead to substantial and transformative changes in performance and capabilities.

In Aschenbrenner’s “Situational Awareness: The Decade Ahead”, OOMs are used to track the progress from earlier AI models like GPT-2 to more advanced ones like GPT-4, and to predict the future developments leading up to AGI and superintelligence.

Rough estimates of past and future scaleup of effective compute (both physical compute and algorithmic efficiencies), are based on the public estimates discussed in this piece. As we scale models, they consistently get smarter, and by “counting the OOMs” we get a rough sense of what model intelligence we should expect in the (near) future. (This graph shows only the scaleup in base models; “unhobblings” are not pictured.)

Aschenbrenner explains that the consistent improvement in deep learning models is driven by three main factors: increased computing power, algorithmic innovations, and unlocking latent capabilities through techniques like reinforcement learning. By tracing these trendlines, he projects another significant leap in AI capabilities by 2027, akin to the jump from a preschooler-level intelligence (GPT-2) to a high school-level intelligence (GPT-4).

II. From AGI to Superintelligence: the Intelligence Explosion

Look. The models, they just want to learn. You have to understand this. The models, they just want to learn.

- Ilya Sustkever (circa 2015, via Dario Amodei)

This section explores the potential for an "intelligence explosion" following the development of AGI. Aschenbrenner posits that once AI systems reach a certain level of self-improvement, they could rapidly enhance their capabilities, leading to superintelligence. The graph in his essays illustrates a sharp upward trend in "Effective Compute," indicating the rapid escalation from human-level to superhuman intelligence.

Automated AI research could accelerate algorithmic progress, leading to 5+ OOMs of effective compute gains in a year. The AI systems we’d have by the end of an intelligence explosion would be vastly smarter than humans. 

The concept of an intelligence explosion suggests that AGI could automate AI research, compressing decades of advancements into a short period. This rapid progression would result in AI systems far surpassing human intelligence, fundamentally altering technological and societal landscapes. Aschenbrenner emphasizes the need for careful management of this transition to harness its benefits while mitigating risks.

IIIa. Racing to the Trillion-Dollar Cluster

Aschenbrenner discusses the economic implications of AGI, particularly the race to build massive compute clusters worth trillions of dollars. He describes how major corporations and governments are investing heavily in AI infrastructure, including data centers and power generation capabilities, to support the next wave of AI advancements.

This investment surge is compared to historical industrial mobilizations, highlighting the scale and urgency of current efforts. Aschenbrenner notes that this unprecedented economic acceleration will significantly impact global economies, driving innovation and growth but also posing challenges in terms of resource allocation and environmental impact.

IIIb. Lock Down the Labs: Security for AGI

In this section, Aschenbrenner underscores the critical importance of securing AGI research and development. He argues that AI labs currently treat security as an afterthought, which could lead to significant risks, including the theft of AGI technologies by hostile entities.

He calls for a comprehensive security strategy to protect AGI research from espionage and misuse. This includes implementing robust cybersecurity measures, securing sensitive information, and ensuring that AI developments are ethically aligned with societal values. Aschenbrenner’s emphasis on security reflects the potential threats that unchecked AGI development could pose to global stability.

IIIc. Superalignment

Superalignment is a technical challenge related to ensuring that superintelligent AI systems act in accordance with human values and intentions. Aschenbrenner highlights the difficulty of controlling AI systems that are significantly smarter than humans, noting that failure to solve this problem could lead to catastrophic outcomes.

Aligning AI systems via human supervision (as in RLHF) won’t scale to superintelligence. Based on an illustration from “Weak-to-strong generalization“.

He discusses various approaches to superalignment, including advanced training techniques and the development of AI safety protocols. Aschenbrenner stresses that achieving superalignment is crucial for the safe and beneficial deployment of superintelligent AI systems, and it requires concerted efforts from researchers, policymakers, and technologists.

IIId. The Free World Must Prevail

This section addresses the geopolitical implications of AGI development, particularly the competition between democratic and authoritarian regimes. Aschenbrenner argues that maintaining a technological edge in AGI is essential for the free world to preserve its values and global influence.

He warns that losing the AGI race to authoritarian powers could result in significant shifts in global power dynamics, with potentially severe consequences for democratic societies. Aschenbrenner calls for strategic investments in AGI research and development to ensure that democratic nations lead the charge in shaping the future of AI​​.

IV. The Project

Aschenbrenner draws a parallel to the Manhattan Project, advocating for a national initiative dedicated to AGI development. This project would involve significant government investment and coordination to manage the development and deployment of AGI technologies.

He envisions a scenario where the national security state becomes deeply involved in AGI research, ensuring that it is conducted safely and ethically. This initiative would aim to secure the strategic advantages of AGI while addressing the associated risks and challenges.

V. Parting Thoughts

In the final section, Aschenbrenner reflects on the broader implications of his predictions. He emphasizes the need for situational awareness among policymakers, researchers, and the public to prepare for the transformative impact of AGI.

Aschenbrenner’s parting thoughts serve as a call to action, urging stakeholders to take proactive measures in anticipation of AGI’s arrival. He stresses that the decisions made today will shape the future of AI and its role in society, underscoring the importance of informed and deliberate action​​.


Leopold Aschenbrenner's "Situational Awareness" series offers a thought-provoking examination of the future of AI. His predictions highlight the rapid pace of AI development and the significant implications for society. As we approach potentially transformative advancements in AI, it is crucial to understand the implications, prepare for the challenges, and harness the opportunities that AGI and superintelligence might bring.

In summary, Aschenbrenner's work serves as a clarion call for serious consideration and action. The rapid advancements in AI are not just technological milestones but societal ones, necessitating immediate and thoughtful responses to ensure a beneficial future for humanity.

For further reading and detailed graphs illustrating these concepts, you can refer to the original "Situational Awareness" series available here.

About the Author

Sam Obeidat is an author, futurist, serial entrepreneur, an internationally recognized expert in AI strategy, and a technology product lead. He excels in developing advanced AI technologies across a variety of sectors, including education, fintech, government, defense, and healthcare.

Sam is the founder and managing partner of World AI University (WAIU), which is dedicated to preparing professionals for AI-led advancements in their respective fields. At WAIU, Sam has been instrumental in developing AI strategies for more than 30 leading organizations and spearheads the integration of diverse AI technologies. Sam is also the founder of GeminaiX, a technology that aims to automatically build digital AI replicas of human professionals with a vision where humans and machines can coexist in harmony.

Sam holds degrees in Applied Sciences and a Master of Global Management (MGM) with a focus on deep learning in investment management. He is currently pursuing a doctorate at Royal Roads University in Canada, researching the factors that drive successful AI adoption in organizations.

Connect with Sam Obeidat on LinkedIn

Chief AI Officer (CAIO) Program: An AI Leadership Odyssey

World AI University proudly presents the Chief AI Officer (CAIO) program, an intensive two-week (20-hour) executive training course. Tailored for executives, CXOs, and leaders from both the public and private sectors, this interactive program aims to develop critical AI leadership skills vital in today's rapidly evolving technological environment. Participants will engage in lively discussions and network with global leaders, sharing insights on AI transformation within various organizations.

Program Highlights:

  • AI Leadership Skills: Cultivate the skills to assess and elevate your organization’s AI capabilities.

  • Strategic Initiative Leadership: Employ our practical frameworks to construct your AI business case, leading and managing AI-centric projects and initiatives.

  • Mastering Generative AI Tools: Hands-on training with the latest in generative AI technologies and automated workflows.

  • AI Integration: Learn to seamlessly integrate AI with effective strategies and frameworks into your organization’s processes.

  • AI Governance and Ethics: Establish a robust organizational AI governance model to ensure safe, ethical, and responsible AI usage.

  • Future of AI: Project the growth of your AI initiatives over the next 3-5 years, keeping pace with industry trends and advancements.

Networking and Continued Engagement

Graduates will become esteemed members of our World AI Council (WAIC), joining a global community of visionary leaders, domain experts, and policymakers. As members, you will have opportunities to speak at the World AI Forum, contribute to influential reports and policy documents, and share innovative project ideas with peers in the field.

Join Our July 2024 Cohort

Register now to secure one of the limited 15 spots in our upcoming cohort. We eagerly anticipate your participation and are excited to see how you will drive AI transformation in your sphere!

Register Today: Join the July 2024 cohort by registering here.

Secure your seats early as there’s a limited capacity of 15 leaders per cohort. We look forward to your participation!

About The AI Citizen Hub - by World AI University (WAIU)

The AI Citizen newsletter stands as the premier source for AI & tech tools, articles, trends, and news, meticulously curated for thousands of professionals spanning top companies and government organizations globally, including the Canadian Government, Apple, Microsoft, Nvidia, Facebook, Adidas, and many more. Regardless of your industry – whether it's medicine, law, education, finance, engineering, consultancy, or beyond – The AI Citizen is your essential gateway to staying informed and exploring the latest advancements in AI, emerging technologies, and the cutting-edge frontiers of Web 3.0. Join the ranks of informed professionals from leading sectors around the world who trust The AI Citizen for their updates on the transformative world of artificial intelligence.

For advertising inquiries, feedback, or suggestions, please reach out to us at [email protected].

Join the conversation

or to participate.